A concise history of the crusades - whose chief goal was the liberation and preservation of the holy places of the middle east - from the first calls to arms in the later twelfth century to the fall of the last crusader strongholds in Syria and Palestine in 1291.
This is the ideal introductory textbook for all students of the crusades.
Professor Richard considers the consequences of the crusades, such as the establishment of the Latin east, and its organisation into a group of feudal states, as well as crusading contacts with the Muslim world, eastern Christians, Byzantines, and Mongols.
Also considered are the organisation of expeditions, the financing of such expeditionary forces, and the organisation of operations and supply.
Jean Richard is one of the world s great crusader historians and this work, the distillation of over forty years research and contemplation, is the only one of its kind in English.