Environmental Pharmacology of NSAIDs
Nowadays, there is growing concern for the environmental risks of pharmaceuticals.
Pharmaceuticals are present in the environment as a consequence of patient use, drug production and formulation, and improper disposal.
Pharmaceuticals pose a risk for aquatic organisms as well as for terrestrial environment.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is one of the most commonly prescribed medicines worldwide.
Thus, there is growing concern for the potential environmental risks posed by diclofenac.
Diclofenac has been included in the watch list of substances in EU that requires its environmental monitoring in the member states.
Diclofenac has been shown to cause dramatic population declines (>99%) in Gyps vulture species in India and Pakistan, resulting in localised extinctions.
Diclofenac has also been recognized as a threat for plants.
Environmental toxicity of diclofenac in plants has implications for human health.
Potential human exposure to diclofenac and diclofenac metabolites through dietary intake should be taken into account.
Diclofenac as wells as other medications and personal care products may contaminate food produce via plant uptake, thus constituting a route for human exposure.
This book presents current knowledge on the environmental pharmacology of diclofenac, taking into account the potentially toxic effect of diclofenac in different eco-systems.
In addition, using diclofenac as a paradigm, the book focuses on the discipline of eco-pharmacovigilance as well as on research methodology issues in the field of eco-pharmacovigilance.
All the chapters are well-written and structured and appropriately referenced.
The most important feature of the book is that although the different chapters have been contributed by scientists with different fields of interest, the book can also be useful for medical doctors who are interested in the field of environmental pharmacology.
Environmental pharmacology is a multidisciplinary field of science.
The book will be interesting for researchers with research interest in environmental pharmacology, i.e. pharmacologists, chemists, veterinary doctors, health policy makers, etc.
The book will also be interesting for academic teachers, medical doctors, pharmacologists, pharmacists and medical students.